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National Park & Wildlife Reserve

Annapurna Conservation Area Project (7,000 sq km) encompasses both the Annapurna Massif region and the recently-opened Mustang. This project area includes middle hills, sub-alpine, alpine and trans-Himalayan dry plateau ecosystems. An internationally renowned model for self-sustainable development, the project stands for successful participatory natural resource management, combining village development, education and conservation with the conservation education of trekkeDhorpatan Hunting Arears.

Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (1,325 sq km) attracts sports hunters for the highly-covered blue sheep and other game animals such as the leopard, ghoral, serow, Himalayan tahr, Himalayan black bear, barking deer, wild boar and so on. It is forested with fir, pine, birch, rhododendron, hemlock, oak, juniper and spruce. Pheasants and partridges are common here. Endangered animals include the musk deer, wolf, red panda, cheer and danphe pheasant. Controlled hunting is the policy in this reserve.

Khaptad National ParkKhaptad National Park (255 sq km) represents the flora and fauna of Nepalís mid-Western hills. The common tree species here are chir pine, spruce, fir, maple, birch, alder and rhododendron. Dense nigalo bamboo groves and wide varieties of medicinal herbs are also found here. The fauna includes the leopard, Himalayan yellow-throated marten, Himalayan black bear, musk deer, ghoral and Himalayan tahr. Danphe, kalij and monal pheasants, chukor partridge, red- and yellow-billed blue magpie and Himalayan griffin are some of the birds of the area.

Khoshi Tappu WildlifeKoshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (175 sq km). The vegetation here is mainly of grassland, scrub and deciduous forests. The reserve is unique for its wild arna buffaloes. Other mammals are the hog deer, wild boar, spotted deer and blue bull. The species of birds total 280 here, including 20 of ducks, two of ibises, many storks, egrets, herons and the endangered swamp partridges and Bengal floricans. The reserve is a resting place for migrating birds not seen anywhere in Nepal. The endangered gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin are also recorded in the Koshi River.

Langtang National ParkLangtang National Park (1,710 sq km) abounds in numerous vegetation types. Oaks, maple, various rhododendrons, chir pine, fir, blue pine, hemlock and spruce are found here. The latitudinal/topographical variations show such diverse animals as the wild dog, Himalayan red panda, pika, muntjack, musk deer, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan tahr, ghoral, serow, rhesus monkey and common langur. This region is also an important route for migrating birds.

Makalu-Barun National ParkMakalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area (2,330 sq km: 1,500 sq km National Park, and 830 sq km Conservation Area) extends from sub-tropical forests to high alpine vegetation. The region has 67 species of aromatic and medicinal plants, 25 of Nepalís 30 varieties of rhododendron, 15 types of oak and 48 species of primrose. Over 400 species of birds thrive here, including the newly-discovered (in Nepal) spotted wren babbler and the olive ground babbler. Wildlife includes the endangered red panda, musk deer, Himalayan black bear, clouded leopard and possibly the snow leopard too.

Parsa WildlifeParsa Wildlife Reserve (499 sq km) was established as an extension of Royal Chitwan National Park, but having its own natural heritage. It encompasses the east-west Churia hills of chir pine, khair, sissoo and silk cotton and drops down to the subtropical monsoon belt of sal forests and sabai grasslands. The reserve supports wild elephant, tiger, leopard, sloth bear, gaur, blue bull, wild dog, sambar, chittal, hog deer, barking deer, langur, striped hyena, palm civet and jungle cat.

Rara National ParkRara National Park (106 sq km) has its gem in Rara, Nepalís biggest lake (10.8 sq km) at 2,990 m! The park ascends from 1,800 to 4,048 m and abounds in coniferous forests of blue pine, black juniper, West Himalayan spruce, oak and Himalayan cypress as well as Indian horse-chestnut, walnut and Himalayan poplar. It is an ideal habitat for the musk deer, Himalayan black bear, leopard, ghoral, Himalayan tahr and wild boar. Snow trout is the only fish found in Rara Lake.

Royal Bardiya National ParkRoyal Bardiya National Park (968 sq km) is the largest and most undisturbed wilderness area in the Terai. It is thickly forested by sal trees and is carpeted with grass, savannah and riverine forest. It is a regenerated habitat for endangered species like the rhinoceros, wild elephant, tiger, swamp deer, black buck, gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin. Endangered birds include the Bengal florican, lesser florican, silver-eared mesia and Sarus crane.

Royal Chitwan National ParkRoyal Chitwan National Park (932 sq km) is the most popular safari destination. It covers a unique ecosystem in the world, containing the Churia hills, ox-bow lakes and flood plains. Dominated by sal forests, the park has 50 species of grasses. The 43 species of animals include the endangered one-horned rhino, Royal Bengal tiger, gharial crocodile, gaur, wild elephant, four-horned antelope, striped hyena, pangolin, Gangetic dolphin, monitor lizard, and pythons.

Royal Suklaphanta WildlifeRoyal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve (305 sq km) was until recently a royal hunting domain. It is dominated by sal trees associated with asna, semal, karma, khair and sissoo sub-species and phanta grasslands. A prime habitat for the swamp deer, it is also home to the wild elephant, tiger, hispid hare, blue bull, leopard, chittal, hog deer and wild boar, along with 200 recorded species of birds. Reptiles include the marsh mugger, Indian python, monitor lizard, cobra, krait and rat snake.

Sagarmatha (Everest) National ParkSagarmatha (Everest) National Park (1,148 sq km), which includes the tallest mountain in the world, is listed as a World Heritage Site. Geologically young and broken into deep gorges and glacial valleys, the Park has vegetation graduating from pine, hemlock, fir, juniper, birch, rhododendrons, scrubs, alpine plants and then to bare rock and snow. This is home to the Himalayan tahr, ghoral, serow and musk deer. The Himalayan black bear and snow leopard are now rarely sighted.

Shey-Phoksundo National ParkShey-Phoksundo National Park (3,555 sq km) is the biggest park in Nepal. Luxuriant forests of blue pine, spruce, cypress, poplar, deodar, fir and birch are found here. It is a primal habitat for the snow leopard and the blue sheep; so also for ghoral, Himalayan tahr, serow, leopard, wolf, jackal, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan weasel, Himalayan mouse hare, yellow-throated marten, langur and rhesus monkeys. The park is equally rich in many kinds of birds.

Shivapuri Watershed and WildlifeShivapuri Watershed and Wildlife Reserve(144 sq km) is situated on the hill of Shivapuri to the north of Kathmandu. It is one of the chief sources of water for the Kathmandu Valley. This is an easily accessible destination for viewing orchids, rhododendrons, pines, utisa trees as well as many medicinal and herbal plants. Rising to a height of 2,732 m, Shivapuri is home to the sloth bear, langur monkey, leopard, barking deer and many species of birds.